Can homosexuality be promoted? » LGBT Azerbaijan Gay.Az
Can homosexuality be promoted?
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Can homosexuality be promoted?

Psychology / society
The scientific community has long ceased to regard homosexuality as a pathology that needs to be treated. The International Classification of Diseases has finally put an end to this issue. In most developed countries, same-sex marriages are legalized or recognized in other countries, but there are countries in which the perception of the LGBT community and tolerance continue to remain at a very low level. Several countries are enacting laws prohibiting the "promotion of non-traditional sexual relations" among minors. In this article, we will analyze the topic of sexual orientation from the point of view of biology and explain why propaganda on this issue is impossible.

First, let's figure out what sexuality is.

Sexuality is a part of the personality of any person, which is characterized by many factors associated with the satisfaction of sexual desire. So, our biological and psychological traits, emotions, experiences, desire for intimacy, intimacy and love are responsible for sexuality.

At first, sexuality was explained solely in terms of reproductive function, and pleasure was perceived as an encouragement to procreate. Other types of sexual behavior, such as masturbation, homosexuality, etc., were perceived as deviations. Also, this topic was considered most often in relation to men, denying female sexuality. However, at the end of the 20th century, due to the development of science, it became possible to control the birth rate and even carry out artificial insemination. Thus, there was a separation of sex from reproductive function, which brought out of the shadow the previously taboo manifestations of sexuality.

Marital relationships were no longer perceived as something “wrong”, women were re-sexed, adolescent and youthful sexuality began to be viewed from the side of possible negative consequences of unprotected sex, and not as something condemned by society. But so far, society has been the strongest opposition to the normalization of homosexuality.

Homosexuality should not be confused with homosociality.

Homosexuality is a preference for a sexual partner of one's own sex, homosociality is a preference in communicating with persons of one's own sex, leading to gender segregation. Closed male and female communities existed in ancient times. Interestingly, men try harder to isolate themselves from women and form a closed community with a rigid hierarchy and masculine values. This segregation process is historically universal. Already at the age of 3 years, children show preferences to play with children of the same sex, this is due to the assimilation of social stereotypes by children. At the same time, these stereotypes are more flexible among girls. At the age of 8-11, boys and girls almost always play separately, and this trend continues throughout life.

In contrast to past centuries, in the modern world, men and women work together, there is a concept of discrimination, even the army is no longer a purely male institution. Despite this, the need for men to communicate with members of the same sex, closed from women, is very strong. The preference to communicate with people of the same gender also affects sexual and erotic experiences. In male communities, where a more rigid definition of the masculine social role is established, there is a greater likelihood of manifestation of homoeroticism and homosexual behavior. This is proved by the experience of behavior in closed male communities, for example, in prisons or military institutions.

Proximity in space and joint activity inevitably lead to emotional attachments, which can subsequently be eroticized. Individual sexual fantasies may differ from the actual choice of a partner for intercourse and sexual orientation. For example, a heterosexual man in prison may need heterosexual fantasies for arousal, but have intercourse with another man. Another option is sexualization as a way of consolidating hierarchical relationships in male society, the dominance of one male over another. However, homosociality gives rise not only to homoeroticism, but also to homophobia. And this is not even about hatred of homosexuals, but about the fear of other men, the fear of losing manhood in the eyes of the community. Because of this self-doubt, there is a need for hypertrophied signs of masculinity. In such cases, even success with women is proof of superiority over other men. This superiority can also be proven through the sexual submission of another man.

Counting the number of people of different sexual orientations in the world is difficult due to various circumstances. In many countries, discrimination against the homosexual population is still widespread. There are cases when the police refused to help homosexual victims, but more often than not the victims were simply afraid to contact the police. In such conditions, it is not always possible to get truthful answers when collecting statistical data. Not all people who are attracted to the same sex identify themselves as homosexuals, and this must be taken into account when compiling questionnaires. The most reliable information is in the United States, where more than 8 million people (3.5% of the adult population) said they identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

Why are some people homosexual?

There are various theories about why people manifest homosexuality. The first theory is that genetic variation in chromosomes is responsible for everything. Scientists studied 409 pairs of homosexual twins and concluded that genetic variation in the X chromosome (Xq28) and in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 8 significantly contributes to the development of male sexual orientation. Another study of 1,077 homosexual men and 1,231 heterosexual men found other markers associated with sexual orientation. One of them is located on chromosome 13 in the region where genes code for proteins responsible for the growth of neurons in the diencephalon, one of which differs in people with different sexual orientations. The second is located on chromosome 14 in the region of the gene encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor proteins. This variation has been found in people with thyroid disease and in mothers of homosexual men.

A relationship was also found between the number of older brothers and the sexual orientation of younger brothers. The study compared two groups of age matched men (302 homosexual and 302 heterosexual) using a survey. The results showed that with each new older brother (but not sister), the likelihood that the younger one turns out to be homosexual increases by 33%. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, another study was conducted in which scientists drew attention to two Y-linked proteins - protocadherin 11 (PCDH11Y) and neuroligin 4 (NLGN4Y), which are responsible for the development of brain structures associated with orientation. These proteins are characteristic of the male body, and if they enter the female, protein structures of "counteraction" - antibodies, begin to be produced against them. Such antibodies were measured in 5 groups of subjects: in men, in women without sons, in women with heterosexual sons, in women with homosexual sons without older brothers, in women with homosexual sons who have older brothers. Correlation was found only for antibodies to neuroligin. It is expected that the lowest amount of antibodies was found in men. Further, their level increased from group to group strictly in the order indicated above. Despite the found relationship, it is still not known how exactly this protein affects the formation of orientation in men and how orientation is formed in women.

Another series of studies show the relationship between sexual orientation and the level of hormones in the mother during pregnancy. It was revealed that the level of testosterone affects the development of the brain in the fetus according to the female or male type, and this further affects gender differences in behavior and sexual orientation. Since the differentiation of the genitals occurs in the first two months after conception, and the sexual differentiation of the brain occurs in the second half of the gestation period, hormones can influence these two processes independently, which can lead to transsexuality or homosexual orientation.

Is the brain of heterosexual and homosexual people different?

The study involved 90 volunteers - 25 heterosexuals and 20 homosexuals of both sexes. He underwent magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain. PET allows you to assess the intensity of metabolism and transport of substances in a particular area of the human body. A difference was found in the structure of the brain: in heterosexual men and homosexual women, right-sided cerebral asymmetry (the difference in the volume and distribution of mental functions between the left and right hemispheres) was observed, while this feature was absent in homosexual men and heterosexual women. Also, using PET, scientists evaluated the activity of the amygdala, a paired structure in the temporal lobes of the brain. In homosexual men, neuronal activation proceeded in the same way as in heterosexual women - with a predominance of the left amygdala over the right one and the spread of neural connections to the opposite amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (part of the limbic system responsible for emotions, learning, memory). In homosexual women and heterosexual men, the activation of neurons was the other way around - with a predominance of the right amygdala over the left and the spread of neural connections to the caudate nucleus, shell, and prefrontal cortex (brain structures responsible for sensory-motor functions). This study shows that in certain situations, gay and lesbians have the same brain activity as in people of the opposite sex.

Homosexuality among animals

Homosexual behavior in animals is not uncommon and occurs in over 1,500 species, from invertebrates to mammals. Sometimes these relationships go beyond sex and include courtship, affection, joint care of the young. Bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees), whose set of genes coincide with humans by 99%, has homosexual behavior. Moreover, sex is varied in nature - from the "French kiss" to genital-genital contacts and oral sex.

Homosexual marriage and parenting.

Studies comparing homosexual and heterosexual families in terms of mental health and competence found little difference. There is no evidence that children of same-sex parents have any educational or academic problems. Moreover, studies have found that the average grade at high school for adolescents raised in homosexual families ranges from 4+ to 5-, which characterizes their academic performance as “above average”. They also do not differ from children of different-sex parents in relationships with peers. 81% of 10-year-olds relate well to their peers and by the age of 17 have strong social ties, indicating close and long-term friendships. The researchers did not find a significant effect of family structure on the gender-role behavior of preschoolers. However, there is evidence that the role behavior of children of same-sex parents is less gender stereotyped. Scientists note that this factor should not be viewed in a negative way, since it rather contributes to a more free-thinking personality development, thanks to the removal of restrictions on “what boys should do” and “what girls should do” (according to the positive reviews of adults themselves who have grown up in same-sex families). Adolescents raised by LGBT parents do not tend to be more self-determined towards homosexual orientation than adolescents in heterosexual families.

Since 2006, the European Parliament has equated homophobia with racism, sexism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. Xenophobia is characteristic of human society. At all times, there was hatred for certain groups of people - different believers, people with a different skin color, different kinds of dissidents, and, accordingly, also towards “dissident people”.

Promoting homophobia or gay pride parades

Holding gay pride parades, so actively banned in a number of people, carries a certain meaning. The culture of gay pride parades originated in the United States. It all started at 01:20 am on June 27, 1969, when police broke into the Stonewall Inn bar, where the LGBT community was gathering at the time. The bar operated without a license to sell alcohol, such a license was not issued to establishments serving gays. Mass arrests began. On the street, a crowd of people was organized, both visitors and passers-by who tried to help. A crowd of several hundred people began to resist. Over the next 6 days, demonstrations in support of the LGBT community continued in New York. After these events, activists were invited to hold a commemorative march every last Saturday in June every year.

It was a rather radical proposal, but surprisingly everything worked out. The first gay pride parade was held in New York on June 28, 1970, after which it became an annual event in other cities in the United States. So, despite the fact that now gay pride parades look like a bright carnival in many ways, in fact it is a procession dedicated to equal rights in society for all people, regardless of whether a person belongs to any social group.

In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, the word "propaganda" is defined as "the dissemination of political, philosophical, scientific, artistic and other views and ideas with the aim of introducing them into public consciousness and enhancing mass practical activity." The above shows that it is impossible to induce someone who does not have a biological predisposition to "practice" in terms of homosexuality. Homosexuality is a complex sign that depends on a huge number of physiological factors, and not on the fact that someone sees homosexuals kissing on the street. One can consider the propaganda of tolerance, or, on the contrary, homophobia, as in Russia, but not in any way non-traditional relations.

Due to lack of funding, the article was translated by google translator. Gay.Az editors apologize for the inconvenience*


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